Mobile satcom can be either global or regional. Global communication uses medium and low orbit satellites, while regional communication uses stationary orbit communication satellites. The first regional mobile communication satellite was launched on February 12, 2000 by Indonesia and was named Asia Cellular Satellite (Aees), also known as Garuda-1. It was the world's first regional mobile communication satellite in Earth stationary orbit, with 140 beam points and 11,000 voice channels, covering 60% of the world's population in the Asia-Pacific region.
The United Arab Emirates launched two satellites, Thuraya-1 and Thuraya-2, on October 20, 2000 and June 10, 2003 respectively. Each satellite has the capacity to support 13,750 simultaneous conversations and covers 106 countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa.
The International Mobile Satellite Corporation launched the fourth-generation Inmarsat-4 satellite in March 2005, which has global beam and 19 wide beams and 228 narrow beams. Two satellites support most of the Inmarsat system's business. It will introduce a series of new Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN) services with a transfer rate of 432 kbit/s, using L-band antennas and digital signal processors (DSP) on the satellites. DSP has channel selection and beamforming functions that can generate broadband channel matching power and bandwidth resources. DSP can also trim satellite coverage and adjust beams to meet capacity and business requirements, and also process solid-state power amplifiers and low-noise amplifiers. BGAN will transmit access to the Internet, Intranet, video-on-demand, video conferencing, fax, email, telephone, and LAN.
The business of medium and low-orbit global mobile satcom is primarily voice and data, which can also connect to the Internet and further develop multimedia communication. The trend of satcom communication is towards large capacity, high power, high speed, broadband, low cost, high transmission frequency, multiple transmitters, multiple beam points, and shaped beam points. Switching signals on-board satellites and processing signals, etc. Satellite live television (DBS-TV), regional mobile satcom communication, multimedia satcom communication, satellite audio broadcasting, and satellite network TV in the 21st century will receive extensive development.
The VSAT terminals business scope continues to expand and extends to various sectors of the national economy, showing its economic and social benefits. The use of Ka-band makes equipment smaller, but also causes serious attenuation. The application of optical communication in satcom communication has gradually become mature and feasible. It requires precise satellite control technology and is still in the research and development stage internationally, but it is expected to enter the practical stage soon.
China's satcom communication industry is also rapidly developing. On April 12, 2005, China launched the Asia-Pacific 6 satellite (Apstar-6), which has 38 C-band and 14 Ku-band transmitters. In October 2006, Sino-2 was also launched with 22 Ku-band transmitters (currently it has technical faults). The application field of satcom communication is constantly expanding. In addition to finance, securities, posts and telecommunications, meteorology, and earthquakes, remote education, remote medical care, emergency relief, emergency communication, emergency TV broadcasting, sea/land/air navigation, network telephones, TV, and more will be widely used. China's satellite launch technology and Long March series launch vehicles are leading the world. China has successfully tested environmentally friendly rocket engines with high thrust, no pollution, and no toxicity. This creates favorable conditions for the development of China's large communication satellites and even manned spaceflight and lunar exploration projects.
China will move forward in the long-term development direction of integrating the sky and the earth, complementary advantages, and military-civilian integration.
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