The advantage of geostationary orbit communication satellites is that only three satellites are needed to cover the entire global region except for the polar regions, and they have become an essential tool for global intercontinental and long-range communication.
For regional mobile satcom systems, a geostationary orbit generally only requires one satellite, with lower construction costs and therefore a wide range of applications.
The typical representatives are the International Mobile Satellite System (Inmarsat), the Asian Cellular Satellite System (ACeS), the Thuraya Satellite System, and the Tiantong One Satellite Mobile Communication System.
The International Mobile Satellite System is the world's first global mobile business satcom system, originally known as the International Maritime Satellite System.
The International Mobile Satcom System consists mainly of four parts:
the space segment, the Network Coordination Station, the Land Earth Station, and the Mobile Earth Station.
Since its operation began in 1982, the system's satellite has developed into the fourth generation. Inmarsat is the only system in the world that can provide comprehensive and public communication and emergency communication services for users across all industries of the sea, land, and air.
The ACeS system is a satellite mobile communication system jointly established by the Indonesian PSN Company, Lockheed Martin Global Communication Company, Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, and Thai Jasmine Company. It consists of the Garuda Satellite, the Satellite Control Station, the Network Control Center, the Gateway, and user terminals. It covers East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia and can provide voice, fax, low-speed data, and VSAT Internet services to various types of user terminals, including ground-fixed, mobile, portable, and handheld devices.
The Thuraya system is a regional stationary satellite mobile communication system established by the United Arab Emirates-based Thuraya Satcom Company. Its space segment consists of three geosynchronous orbit satellites, each equipped with high-power multipoint beam antennas and mobile communication payloads that can provide cellular voice, SMS, data (Internet), fax, and GPS positioning services within the coverage area.
The SkyTerra system provides a 3G-LTE wireless broadband network throughout the United States by combining satellite and ground technologies. Existing WiFi-enabled devices such as PCs and laptops can be connected to the satellite network through data cards, embedded modems, and routers. Another feature of the system is the use of the Auxiliary Ground Component (ACT) technology, through which seamless integration between the satellite and ground networks can be achieved, and users can achieve transparent conversion between satellite and ground networks.
Tiantong One, as the first satcom communication system in China, was launched on August 6, 2016. It is owned by China Satcom Group and designed mainly by China Academy of Space Technology. It uses new equipment and technologies such as a new plastic antenna and single-machine integration technology. The communication frequency is designed in the S-band, and the cellular technology with a bandwidth of 30 MHz can form hundreds of spot beams, with small signal transmission loss and effective communication quality assurance.
The Tiantong One Satcom System consists of the space segment, ground segment, and user terminals, and the space segment is planned to include multiple geosynchronous orbit communication satellites. It can provide communication services such as voice, data, and SMS to mobile users such as vehicles, aircraft, ships, and individuals.